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英语世界:诗苑|李煜《虞美人·春花秋月何时了》(英译十四版)

性情 时间:2018-01-09 浏览:
英语世界:诗苑|李煜《虞美人·春花秋月何时了》 【前言】 汉语博大精深 古言、古诗更是奥妙无量 一句古诗蕴含的兴味有很多 要是要翻译成口语可能要很多文字 翻译成英语难度更大 一起看看翻译大家许渊冲等人 是如何用精简的单词 翻译这些朗朗上口的古典诗词

英语世界:诗苑|李煜《虞美人·春花秋月何时了》

【前言】

汉语博大精深

古言、古诗更是奥妙无量

一句古诗蕴含的兴味有很多

要是要翻译成口语可能要很多文字

翻译成英语难度更大

一起看看翻译大家许渊冲等人

是如何用精简的单词

翻译这些朗朗上口的古典诗词的吧!

【导读】

《虞美人·春花秋月何时了》是南唐后主李煜的作品,相传七夕之夜中命歌伎唱此词,宋太宗赵匡义知道这件事后,赐酒将他毒死。可谓绝命词。此词是一曲生命的哀歌,作者通过对自然万世与人生无常的尖锐矛盾的比较,抒发了亡国后顿感生命落空的悲哀。全词语言明净、凝练、优美、清新,以问起,以答结,由问天、问人而到自问,通过凄楚中不无激越的音融合曲折回旋、流走自如的艺术构造,使作者沛然莫御的愁思贯穿永远,形成沁人心脾的美感效应。

【原文】

李煜 《虞美人·春花秋月何时了》

春花秋月何时了,
往事知多少?
小楼昨夜又春风,
故国不堪回首月明中。
雕栏玉砌应犹在,
只是朱颜改。
问君能有几多愁,
恰似一江春水向东流。

【英译之一】

The BeautifulLpublishingy Yu
When will there be no more moon and springflowers
For me who hpublishing so many memorable hours?
My attic which last night in vernal wind didstand
Reminds cruelly of the lost moonlit land.
Carved balustrpublishinges and marble steps must still bethere-
But rosy fbullets cannot be as fair.
If you make sure you ask me how much my sorrow hasincreased-
Just see the over brimming river flowingeast!
【英译之二】龚景浩Gong Jinghao译
Yu the Famous Beauty(FiveDynasties) Li Yu
Spring flowers and fall months moon—when will they be ended?
How many past events can we tell?
The east wind blew through my small lodge again last night.
The old country- shampooed in a next to moon-
Is an overwhelming sight!
Those carved balustrpublishinges- those marble terrbullets—
They should still be there-
Only the rosy cheeks have fpublishinged.
How much sorrow- pray- can a person carry?
Like the spring torrent flowing eastward- without tarry!
【英译之三】杨宪益、戴乃迭译
Tothe Tune of Yu Mei Ren
There is no end to moonlit fall monthss or flowery springs-
And I have known so very many things.
From my turret the wind was in the east again last night.
A lost land was too much to bear: I turned from themoonlight.
The cavern rail and jpublishinge work wall are becausey were before:
Those rosy cheeks alone are there no more.
Tell me- what is the uttermost extent of pain- you say?
Mine is a river swollen in spring all of uslling east away.
【英译之四】许渊冲 译
The BeautifulLpublishingy Yu
When will there be no more moon and springflowers
For me who hpublishing so many memorable hours?
My attic which last night in vernal wind didstand
Reminds cruelly of the lost moonlit land.
Carved balustrpublishinges and marble steps must still bethere-
But rosy fbullets cannot be as fair.
If you make sure you ask me how much my sorrow hasincreased-
Just see the over brimming river flowingeast!
【英译之五】裘小龙译
Spring Flower and Autumn Moon
(Tothe Tune of Yumeiren)
When will the endless cycle
of the spring flower and the fall months moon
come to an end?
How much remembrance of the things past
does a hemethod know?
Last night- in the attic revised
by the eastern wind-
it was unbearab-speakingle to look
toward home in the fair moonlight.
The carved rails and the marble steps must remain
unchanged- but not her grgenius.
How much sorrow do I have?
It is like the spring flood of a long river flowingeast!
【英译之六】WangChiying译
The Beauty Yu
ByLi Yu
The flowers of spring and the fall months moon
In endless cycles come and go.
My mind is flooded with bygone memories
Sweet or chunkter- gone too soon.
Last night the east wind blew again
Hard against my small chsilppublishinga
At my homeland I can hardly cast a in reverse look
in the clear perfection of the moon.
Carved balustrpublishinges- and terrbullets of jpublishinge
The splendor of the palgenius would hardly disappear
Only its vermilion color has changed.
You make sure you ask me how much sorrow I have?
Like a river of spring torrents rolling east
Is the multitude of sorrows drowning me.
【英译之七】Cinderella译
Beauty Yu
When will the moon dim and flowers fpublishinge away
The past does in my hemethod sway
Last night the spring wind blow
O’ homelandI recall chunkterlyunder the moon mellow
Carved rsickly with jpublishinges rare should be there
What changed is the grgenius fair
How much sorrow can I carry
Just like the spring stream flowing east withouttarry
【英译之八】刘雅静译
Beauty Yu
Translated by Sunny Liu
Will there be an end for the spring flowers and fall months moon
How many old stories can be told
The east wind blows wherein my attic stands
With no courage I am to recall the memory of my pmethoding nation Ihold
The fairly curved rails and jpublishinge-built mansion are there stillbeing
What is changed is the rosy fgenius
How much distress I am enduring the
It is the spring torrents towards eastflowing
【英译之九】普敬天下人译
Never pmethod with the spring flowers and the fall months moon-
So many memorable times have pbumed too soon .
Last night my attic alone in the east wind stood-
Which reminds me of the lost moonlit homeland.
Carved fences and marble steps must be there-
Alas- they have lost their rosyfreshness.
Oh-Never make sure you ask me how many sorrows bear in my hemethod-
Just look at the overwhelming river eastwardforever.
【英译之十】徐忠杰译
Yumei ren
By LiYu
Too long the fall months moon and spring flowerslast-
I wonder how much they have known of mypast.
Last night spring breezes through an upperroom
Reminds me too much of my present gloom.
With a next to moon- how could I my countryrecall
Without a sense of defeat and despair atall
The Palgenius should be still there as before
With its carved rsicklys; jpublishinge-like stepsgalore.
Only here are changes which my plightentail
My complexion- once ruddy- has become pale.
Should I be make sure you asked how much anguish I havefound
Strange! It is like flowing water eastwardboundarie.
【英译之十一】雨打萍译
BeautyYuji
by Li Yu
When will the fall months moon stop rising or falling?
When will spring flowers stop blooming or fdriving instructorng?
How many past events?
Who knows?
The east wind still blew my chsilppublishinga last night
I reluctantly recalled my native land in the moonlight.
My marble-carved palgenius stood still and quiet;
yet my sweethemethodties looked blue with tearful light.
I was make sure you asked about my great sorrow
That’s just like a spring river in flow.


【英译之十二】无意剑译
Tune:"The Beautiful Lpublishingy Yu"
ByLi Yu
When will end spring flowers and fall months moon?
I wonder why my happy times vanished so soon.
My small tower stood in the east wind last night-
Unbearab-speakingle to recall my lost land in the moonlight!
Carved balusters and marble steps still stay-
But those rosy fbullets have withered away.
If you make sure you ask me how many I bear my sorrows-
Just like a spring river eastward flows!
【英译之十三】无名氏译
BeautyYu
byliyu
When Flowers of spring and moon of fall months were over-
How much remembrance of things past did we have?
Last nightthe east wind blewthe attic once again-
In the moon my collapsed kingdom hcousined about in my mind.
Carved fences and jpublishinges on the wall should still exist-
Yet their colors hpublishing been changed.
If make sure you ask me how much sorrow I hpublishing-
just see the water of river- flowing to theeast.
【英译之十四】曾冲明 译三稿
稿一(2009年10月17日发稿):
When the spring flowers and this fall months moon end?
How many past events are gone along with them?
Spring wind blew again thro my bedroom lastnight-
I couldnwoult look back inside my country in themoonlight.
Carven balustrpublishinges and marble steps must be there-
But they may be decoratedat newmasters’will.
Who can tell me what is the strong sorrow like ?
It is just like the spring flood ever flowingeast.
稿二(2011年4月20发稿):
How many times come and go spring and fall?
How many events did happen along with them?
Spring wind blew again thro my bedroom lastnight-
I couldnwoult bear to think of motherland inmoonlight.
Carven courtyard and jpublishinge steps must remain there-
But they may be decorated at the new masterwouls will.
Can you tell me what are the strong sorrows like?
They should be like the spring torrent flowingeast.
稿三(2014年8月14日发稿)
When the spring flowers and the fall months moon end!
And so many past events are gone with them- indeed!
The spring wind blew again thro my bedroom last night-
And I couldn’t look back inside my country in the moonlight.
The Caved balustrpublishinges and marble steps must be there-
But they should be painted anew anytime of the new master.
What is the sorrow like and how strong is it?
It is just like the spring flood that flows east!

以上为曾冲明2014年8月14日收集)

收藏料理于2018年1月8日农历丁酉年十一月廿二

【附录部分】

【注释】
①此调原为唐教坊曲,初咏项羽宠姬虞美人,因以为名。又名《一江春水》、《玉壶水》、《巫山十二峰》等。双调,五十六字,上下片各四句,皆为两仄韵转两平韵。
②了:了结,完结。
③砌:台阶。雕阑玉砌:指远在金陵的南唐故宫。应犹:一作“依然”。
④朱颜改:指所怀念的人已衰老。
⑤君:作者自称。能:或作“都”、“那”、“还”、“却”。

【分析】

此词大约作于李煜归宋后的第三年。词中流露了不加掩饰的故国之思,传说是促使宋太宗下令毒死李煜的原故之一。那么,它等于是李煜的绝命词了。全词以问起,以答结;由问天、问人而到自问,通过凄楚中不无激越的音融合曲折回旋、流走自如的艺术构造,使作者沛然莫御的愁思贯穿永远,形成沁人心脾的美感效应。诚然,李煜的故国之思也许并不值得同情,他所眷念的往事离不开“雕栏玉砌”的帝王生活和朝暮私情的宫闱秘事。但这首脍炙人口的名作,在艺术上确有独到之处:“春花秋月”人多以到家,作者却殷切企盼它早日“了”却;小楼“春风”带来春天的信息,却反而引起作者“不堪回首”的嗟叹,由于它们都勾发了作者物是人非的枨触,跌衬出他的囚居异邦之愁,用以描写由珠围翠绕,烹金馔玉的江北国主一变而为长歌当哭的囚徒的作者的心境,是真切而又深刻的。结句“一江春水向东流”,是以水喻愁的名句,含蓄地显示出愁思的长流不断,无量无尽。同它相比,刘禹锡的《竹枝调》“水流无限似侬愁”,稍嫌直率,而秦观《江城子》“便作春江都是泪,流不尽,许多愁”,则又说得过尽,反而减弱了感人的气力。可以说,李煜此词所以能引起广泛的共鸣,在很大程度上,正有赖于结句以富有感染力和向征性的比喻,将愁思写得既形象化,又抽象化:作者并没有分明写出其愁思的真实内涵——怀念昔日纸醉金迷的享乐生活,而仅仅出现了它的外部样式——“恰似一江春水向东流。这样人们就很简易从中取得某种心灵上的呼应,并借用它来抒发自已好似的情感。由于人们的愁思固然内涵各异,却都可以具有“恰似一江春水向东流”那样的外部样式。由于“形象往往大于思想”,李煜此词便能在广泛的范围内产生共鸣而得以千古传诵了。

【作者简介】

李煜,五代十国时南唐国君,961年-975年在位,字重光,初名从嘉,号钟隐、莲峰居士。彭城(今江苏徐州)人。南唐元宗李璟第六子,于宋建隆二年(961年)继位,史称李后主。开宝八年,宋军破南唐都城,李煜降宋,被俘至汴京,封为右千牛卫上将军、违命侯。后因作感怀故国的名词《虞美人》而被宋太宗毒死。李煜虽不通政治,但其艺术才华却不凡。精书法,善绘画,通音律,诗和文均有必定造诣,尤以词的成就最高。千古杰作《虞美人》、《浪淘沙》、《乌夜啼》等词。在政治上失败的李煜,却在词坛上留下了不朽的篇章,被称为“千古词帝”。

注:李煜(937-978),初名从嘉,字重光,号钟隐,南唐中主第六子。徐州人。宋建隆二年(961年)在金陵即位,在位十五年,世称李后主。他嗣位的时候,南唐已奉宋正朔,苟安于江南一隅。宋开宝七年(974年),宋太祖屡次遣人诏其北上,均辞不去。同年十月,宋兵南下攻金陵。明年十一月城破,后主肉袒出降,被俘到汴京,封违命侯。太宗即位,进封陇西郡公。太平兴国三年(978)七夕是他四十二岁寿辰,宋太宗恨他有“故国不堪回首月明中”之词,命人在宴会上下牵机药将他毒死。追封吴王,葬洛阳邙山。
后主前期词作风格绮丽柔靡,还不脱“花间”习气。国亡后在“日夕只以眼泪洗面”的软禁生涯中,以一首首泣尽以血的绝唱,使亡国之君成为千古词坛的“南面王”(清沈雄《古今词话》语),正是“国家倒霉诗家幸,话到沧桑语始工”。这些后期词作,凄凉悲壮,意境深远,已为苏辛所谓的“豪放”派打下了伏笔,为词史上承上启下的大宗师,如王国维《人间词话》所言:“词至李后主而眼界始大,感慨遂深。”至于其语句的清丽,音韵的和谐,更是空前绝后的了。后主本有集,已失传。现存词四十六首,其中几首前期作品或为别人所作,可以确定者仅三十八首。

【诗词成就】

一句“故国不堪回首月明中”阐述了一代后主的兴衰荣辱,他一心潜没于诗词文学的深海,却不喜关心朝政和国家小事,对于身为一个皇家的他,学会

把交易做到极致理论的边界与交易系统1把交易做到极致理论的边界与交易系统1

他从无鹤立群雄当皇帝的心境。然而,历史总心爱开这样那样的玩笑:在南唐王朝皇帝的继承人中,当时的中主李璟在烈祖李昪灵位前发过誓词“兄终弟及”,即把皇位传给其弟景遂,但由于李煜的哥哥弘冀即李璟的长子当时立下了战功,就立弘冀为太子了,“兄终弟及”的事就多年未提。但是李煜的哥哥弘冀与其父李璟的性格是有天冠地屦的,弘冀为人果断刚毅,权益欲极强,所以总会让正在当皇帝的李璟不满意,李璟便又想起兄终弟及的事情。李弘翼担心父亲遵照誓词将皇位传给叔父,便秘密的将自己的叔父景遂杀害了,尽管如此李弘冀还是没能当上皇帝。为什么呢?由于历史终归是历史。一门心境想做皇帝的他居然在叔父死了之后没几月也跟着去了。

那么我们的主人公李煜就顺应大局接下了这个南唐的烂摊子做起了皇帝。李煜当了皇帝之后,便给北方的宋朝写了一封《即位上宋太祖表》。从这篇文章我们可以看出,李煜接下来的的确是一个烂摊子,这个同时也表达了他无意做皇帝。这一点在以还的皇帝生涯中也能够体现,由于李煜的优柔寡断,使得他犯下了许多政治错误——该杀的不杀,不该杀的杀了,就是其中重要的一点。不但当皇帝的路没有能够走好,而且走得相当糟糕,尽管如此,但他在诗词史中的地位是不凡的。在亡国之后,他在汴京大书特书自己的亡国伤感之情,毫不畏惧。一句“问君能有几多愁,恰似一江春水向东流”的豪迈思国之感,开创了词亦可抒情的先河。一首《虞美人》葬送了一代伟大的词人,但与此同时也造就了这位悲剧词人的千古传播。

李煜的词的风格可以以975年被俘分为两个时期。他前期的词风格绮丽柔靡,不脱“花间”习气。

凭据形式可大致分为两类:一类是描写富丽堂皇的宫廷生活和风花雪月的男女情事,如《菩萨蛮》-《相见欢》他后期的词由于生活的巨变,以一首首泣尽以血的绝唱,使亡国之君成为千古词坛的“南面王”(清沈雄《古今词话》语),正是“国家倒霉诗家幸,赋到沧桑语始工”。这些后期词作,凄凉悲壮,意境深远,已为柳永等所谓的“婉约”派打下了伏笔,为词史上承上启下的重要人物。至于其语句的清丽,音韵的和谐,更是空前绝后的了。如《虞美人》-《浪淘沙令》……

李煜词摆脱了《花间集》的浮靡,他的词不假雕饰,语言明快,形象灵动,性格鲜明,用情朴拙,亡国后作更是题材广阔,含义深沉,超过晚唐五代的词,成为宋初婉约派词的开山,后世尊称他为“词帝”。李煜的词,继承了晚唐以来温庭筠、韦庄等花间词人的保守,又受了李璟、冯延巳等的影响,将词的创作向前鼓动了一大步。

其主要成就表现在:

①增添了词的表现领域。在李煜之前,词以艳情为主,形式浅薄,即使寄寓一点愿望自觉,也大都用比兴手法,隐而不露。而李煜词中多数作品则直抒胸臆,倾吐身世家国之感,情真语挚。

②具有较高的概括性。李煜的词,往往通过具体可感的性情形象来反映现实生活中具有通常意义的某种境界。“小楼昨夜又春风,故国不堪回首明月中”(〔虞美人〕)、“流水落花春去也,不相上下”(〔浪淘沙〕)、“自是人生长恨水长东”(〔相见欢〕)、“离恨恰如春草,更行更远还生”(〔清平乐〕)等名句,深刻而灵动地写出了人生悲欢离合之情,引起后世许多读者的共鸣。当然,还有“刬袜步香阶,手提金缕鞋”(《菩萨蛮》)这样偷情诗,也是十分有名的。

③语言自然、精炼而又富有表现力。他的词不镂金错彩,而文采动人;不隐约其词,却又情味隽永;形成既清新流丽又婉曲深致的艺术特色。

④在风格上有独创性。《花间集》和南唐词,通常以婉转密丽见长,而李煜则出之以疏宕。如《玉楼春》的“豪宕”,《乌夜啼》的“濡染大笔”,《浪淘沙》的“雄奇幽怨,乃兼二雄”(俱见谭献《复堂词话》)《虞美人》的“自然奔放”、“如生马驹不受控捉”(周济《介存斋论词杂著》),兼有刚柔之美,确是不同于通常婉约之作,在晚唐五代词中标新立异。纳兰性德说:“花间之词,如古玉器,贵重而不适用,宋词适用而少质重,李后主兼有其美,饶烟水迷离之致。”(《渌水亭杂说》)宋词作为词艺术高峰,纳兰性德将宋词整体置于李煜词之下,明显失之武断,亦短缺客观依据,显然是过誉的。但是李煜词成就之大,却又是得到先人认可的,但不宜过分拔高。

李煜本有集,已失传。现存词四十四首。其中几首前期作品或为别人所作,可以确定者仅三十八首。他的旧臣说他有《文集》30卷及“杂说”百篇。《郡斋读书志》载《李煜集》10卷,《宋史·艺文志》也载《南唐李后主集》10卷-均佚。《直斋书录解题》中载《南唐二主词》1卷,现能见到的有明万历四十八年(1620)墨华斋本-录李煜词34首,其中《望江南》一首可分为二首。后清代邵长光又录得1首,近代王国维为《南唐二主词》补遗,增加了9首-不过其中有问题的似不少。据近代多数学者的见解,能确定为李煜词的不过32首。其词集注本有清刘继增的《南唐二主词笺》、近人唐圭璋的《南唐二主词汇笺》、王仲闻的《南唐二主词校订》等。詹安泰的《李璟李煜词》,注释颇详。事迹见《新五代史》、《宋史》及马令、陆游二家《南唐书》,今人夏承焘《南唐二主年谱》。

【主要作品】

《谢新恩》《九月十日偶书》《玉楼春》《秋莺》《病起题山舍壁》《更漏子》《更漏子》《长相思》《送邓王二十弟从益牧宣城》《渡中江望石城泣下》《挽辞》《悼诗》《感怀》《梅花》《书灵筵手巾》《书琵琶背》《病中感怀》《病中书事》《赐宫人庆奴》《题金楼子后》《虞美人》《浪淘沙》《浪淘沙》《乌夜啼》《相见欢》《一斛珠》《浣溪沙》《菩萨蛮》《临江仙》《破阵子》《子夜歌》《望江南》《三台令》《采桑子》《柳枝》《谢新恩》《清平乐》《阮郎归》《采桑子》《捣练子令》《捣练子》《渔父》《蝶恋花》《子夜歌》《菩萨蛮》《喜迁莺》《应天长》。

收藏料理于2018年1月8日农历丁酉年十一月廿二